This is a small list of books and papers I put together on cryptography and cryptanalysis.
Disclaimer: this list is written by someone who does not have a Crypto PhD. If you want an officially blessed version you will need to ask your nearest friendly cryptographer.
Mathematically focused is intended to highlight the fact the book does not shy away from Mathematics. If you want a simple, advanced-maths-free explanation you might find these books disappointing: please check first to make sure the level is suitable for you.
Right now this just contains links to books and some online resources. I might expand it here and there with papers later. If you want to start looking at papers you can go and look at CryptoBib.
You may be interested in IACR Book Reviews.
Your need-to-know on RSA is covered in many introductory texts, as you'd expect from something that has been around since the 70s. However for a more specialized view, see:
Almost every Elliptic Curve introduction found outside the general books is fairly mathematical.
The Guide to Elliptic Curve Cryptography (Hankersone, Menezes, Vanstone) is a good introduction to elliptic curves; it is less complete than the Handbook of Elliptic and Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptography, but more gentle in math contents.
It looks difficult to source likely due to being out of print. Any source suggestions welcome; I will update this entry if I find any myself.
Handbook of Elliptic and Hyperelliptic Curve cryptography: A combination of advanced maths textbook on ECC and algorithm reference for ECC.
Elliptic Curves Number Theory Cryptography: Exactly what it sounds like, an introduction to elliptic curve cryptography with a highly mathematical focus.
Elliptic Curves in Cryptography and Advances in Elliptic Curve Cryptography are excellent guides to all things Elliptic Curve. There's a fair amount of Mathematics but also algorithms, particularly in the second book.
There are not many books on this yet to my knowledge.
These books focus exclusively on cryptanalysis. Arguably Modern Cryptanalysis and the Block Cipher companion could have been included here, but they focus mostly on block ciphers, so I've included them there.